30 Days of Tennessee Archaeology 2015, Day 5
Tennessee Division of Archaeology
The prehistoric period in Tennessee effectively ends with the arrival of the DeSoto expedition along the Nolichucky River in 1540. Although the specific route of that expedition has not been conclusively identified to date, possible Spanish contact artifacts recovered from a site in Hamilton County in 2007 suggest that European material culture rapidly diffused throughout the region. In addition to glass beads, metal tools, and other exotic trade goods, the arrival of Europeans west of the Appalachian Mountains resulted in the first written accounts of Native American lifeways in the region. Today both archaeologists and the public enjoy unprecedented access to ethnohistorical documents through research gateways such as UNC’s Documenting the American South project, American Journeys from the Wisconsin Historical Society, the Early Americas Digital Archive from the University of Maryland, Archive.org, and of course Google Books. Ethnohistorical sources are not without their flaws, and are widely varied in their authorship, intent, and veracity. Some were written down years after the events they chronicle, while others were plagiarized in part or whole from earlier sources, and all are subject to the historical, cultural, and personal biases of the authors. However, careful reading of ethnohistorical documents can also serve as an interpretive aid for archaeologists examining sites and artifacts from the late prehistoric and early historic period. With this in mind, today I would like to highlight the anniversary of one ethnohistorical source.
This month marks the 250th anniversary of the death of Lt. Henry Timberlake, whose memoirs (published that same year) chronicle travels through Overhill Cherokee territory in East Tennessee. Timberlake was born in 1730 in Hanover County, Virginia, and entered the military at the age of 26, serving first in a local militia unit and later with the Virginia Regiment in the French and Indian War. In 1761 Timberlake was dispatched to Fort Robinson, on the Holston River in present-day Kingsport, Tennessee. After the first Treaty-of-Long-Island-on-the-Holston was signed later that year, Timberlake volunteered to journey south into Cherokee country, acting both as a diplomat and perhaps also as a spy for the British Colonial government.
From December of 1761 through March of 1762 Timberlake traveled up the lower Little Tennessee River through Overhill Cherokee territory, visiting a series of towns and recording his impressions of Cherokee culture. Following this adventure he escorted Cherokee delegations to England in 1762 and 1764. These trips resulted in Timberlake’s financial ruin, and he died on September 30, 1765. His memoirs, titled The Memoirs of Lieut. Henry Timberlake, (Who accompanied the Three Cherokee Indians to England in the Year 1762); Containing Whatever he observed remarkable, or worthy of public Notice, during his travels to and from that nation; wherein the Country, Government, Genius, and Customs of the Inhabitants, are authentically described; also the Principal Occurrences during their Residence in London. Illustrated with an Accurate Map of their Over-hill Settlement, and a curious Secret Journal, taken by the Indians out of the pocket of a Frenchman they had killed, were published in London following his death.
Timberlake’s record of Overhill Cherokee settlement in Tennessee has become an important source for interpreting the archaeological record. Two hundred years after Timberlake’s voyage, the TVA began construction on the Tellico Dam, which along with the Chilhowee Dam would eventually inundate the Little Tennessee River Valley and all of the Overhill towns Timberlake visited. Prior to completion of the dams, the University of Tennessee conducted archaeological excavations at sites below the final reservoir pool elevation, including Citico, Chota, Tomotley, and Toqua. Additional sites were excavated by the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and the Tennessee Archaeological Society. Timberlake’s map (included above) aided in the identification of site locations, while his descriptions of the towns provided revealing first-hand accounts of the features and artifact classes discovered during this work.
I would encourage anyone interested in the late prehistoric or early historic period in Tennessee to read through Timberlake’s memoirs, the first edition of which is available for free via Archive.org. For those that prefer a hard copy, an edition edited by Duane H. King was published in 2007 by the Museum of the Cherokee Indian Press.